Doron Pappo studied at Tel Aviv University, where he worked with Yoel Kashman for his Ph.D. (completed in 2006). He subsequently carried out postdoctoral work with Prof. K. C. Nicolaou at The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, and the Biopolis Chemical Synthesis Laboratory, ICES (A*STAR), Singapore (2006–2007). From 2007–2009, he was a senior researcher in Prof. Keinan's group at the Technion and then held a position at Makhteshim-Agan (currently ADAMA; 2010).

He joined the faculty at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in 2010 as an assistant professor. He was promoted in 2016 to an associate professor and in 2020 to the rank of a full professor. ​ 

The Pappo group's primary research interest is developing and designing novel redox systems for selective oxidation and dehydrogenation reactions based on earth-abundant metal catalysts.

Doron was awarded in 2016 The Israeli Chemical Society Award for the Outstanding Young Scientist for the group research achievements.